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العودة   قاعدة المعلومات المصرية > الأقسام التجارية > قاعدة معلومات التمويل والاستيراد والتصدير

قاعدة معلومات التمويل والاستيراد والتصدير عروض وطلبات التمويل وطلبات الاستيراد والتصدير


 
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قديم 08-10-2010, 05:13 PM
افتراضي الاعتمادات المستندية ومصطلحات الشحن والتخليص الجمركي

وخطاب الاعتماد هو عبارة تستخدم عادة لدفع معاملات البيع الدولي. ومن أساسا آلية ، والذي يسمح مستوردين / المشترين على تقديم شروط دفع تأمين للمصدرين / البائعين في أحد البنوك التي (أو أكثر من بنك واحد) تورط. The technical term for Letter of credit is ' Documentary Credit '. المصطلح التقني لخطاب الائتمان هو 'الاعتماد المستندي'. At the very outset one must understand is that Letters of credit deal in documents, not goods. في واحد للغاية منذ البداية يجب أن يفهم هو أن خطابات الائتمان في معالجة الوثائق ، وليس السلع. The idea in an international trade transaction is to shift the risk from the actual buyer to a bank. هذه الفكرة في أي صفقة تجارية دولية هي لتحويل المخاطر من المشتري الفعلي لأحد البنوك. Thus a LC (as it is commonly referred to) is a payment undertaking given by a bank to the seller and is issued on behalf of the applicant ie the buyer. وبالتالي لقانون العمل (كما هو شائع المشار إليها) هو دفع التعهد المقدم من البنك إلى البائع وتصدر نيابة عن مقدم الطلب أي المشتري. The Buyer is the Applicant and the Seller is the Beneficiary . والمشتري هو مقدم الطلب ، والبائع هو المستفيد. The Bank that issues the LC is referred to as the Issuing Bank which is generally in the country of the Buyer. والبنك الذي يصدر قانون العمل ويشار إلى أن البنك إصدار وهو عموما في بلد المشتري. The Bank that Advises the LC to the Seller is called the Advising Bank which is generally in the country of the Seller. والبنك الذي يقدم المشورة لقانون العمل إلى بائع يسمى البنك تقديم المشورة التي هي عموما في البلد للبائع.

The specified bank makes the payment upon the successful presentation of the required documents by the seller within the specified time frame. البنك المحدد يجعل الدفع عند العرض الناجح لالمستندات المطلوبة من قبل البائع في إطار زمني محدد. Note that the Bank scrutinizes the 'documents' and not the 'goods' for making payment. Thus the process works both in favor of both the buyer and the seller. The Seller gets assured that if documents are presented on time and in the way that they have been requested on the LC the payment will be made and Buyer on the other hand is assured that the bank will thoroughly examine these presented documents and ensure that they meet the terms and conditions stipulated in the LC. علما بأن البنك تمحص 'وثائق' وليس 'السلع' من أجل تنفيذ عمليات الدفع. وهكذا تعمل هذه العملية على حد سواء لصالح كل من البائع والمشتري ، وبائع يحصل تتأكدوا من انه اذا تعرض الوثائق في الوقت المناسب وبالطريقة التي كانت قد طلبت من قانون العمل على أن يتم الدفع والمشتري من ناحية أخرى هو التأكد من أن البنك سوف إمعان النظر في هذه الوثائق المقدمة وضمان استيفائها للشروط والشروط المنصوص عليها في قانون العمل.



قديم 08-10-2010, 05:14 PM   رقم المشاركة : [2]
مشرف قاعدة المعلومات المصرية
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افتراضي رد: الاعتمادات المستندية ومصطلحات الشحن والتخليص الجمركي

عادة الوثائق المطلوبة في خطاب الاعتماد هي كما يلي :
  • Commercial invoice الفاتورة التجارية
  • Transport document such as a Bill of lading or Airway bill, مستند نقل مثل بوليصة الشحن أو وثيقة النقل الجوي ،
  • Insurance document; وثيقة التأمين ؛
  • Inspection Certificate شهادة التفتيش
  • Certificate of Origin شهادة المنشأ


    But there could be others too. ولكن قد يكون هناك اخرون ايضا.

Letters of credit (LC) deal in documents, not goods. خطابات الائتمان (قانون العمل) في وثائق الاتفاق ، وليس السلع. The LC could be 'irrevocable' or 'revocable'. قانون العمل يمكن أن تكون 'لا رجعة فيه' أو 'الرجعية'. An irrevocable LC cannot be changed unless both the buyer and seller agree. وقانون العمل لا رجعة فيه ولا يمكن تغييره إلا كل من البائع والمشتري نوافق على ذلك. Whereas in a revocable LC changes to the LC can be made without the consent of the beneficiary. في حين أن التغييرات في قانون العمل الرجعي لقانون العمل ويمكن أن يتم دون موافقة الجهة المستفيدة. A 'sight' LC means that payment is made immediately to the beneficiary/seller/exporter upon presentation of the correct documents in the required time frame. وقال 'الأفق' ش يعني أن يتم السداد على الفور إلى المستفيد / المشتري / المصدر عند تقديم المستندات الصحيحة في الإطار الزمني المطلوب. A 'time' or 'date' LC will specify when payment will be made at a future date and upon presentation of the required documents. وقال 'الوقت' أو 'تاريخ' قانون العمل سيتم تحديد موعد الدفع ستتم في موعد لاحق وعند تقديم المستندات المطلوبة.

Essential Principles Governing Law Within the United States, Article 5 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) governs L/Cs. المبادئ الأساسية التي تحكم القانون داخل الولايات المتحدة ، والمادة 5 من القانون التجاري الموحد (يونيون كاربايد كوربوريشن) يحكم خطابات الاعتماد. Article 5 is founded on two principles: (1) the L/C,s independence from the underlying business transaction, and (2) strict compliance with documentary requirements. المادة 5 يقوم على مبدأين هما : (1) والاعتماد المستندي ، ق الاستقلال عن المعاملات التجارية الكامنة ، و (2) الالتزام الصارم مع المتطلبات المستندية.

1) Strict Compliance 1) الالتزام الصارم
How strict compliance? كيفية الالتزام الصارم؟ Some courts insist upon literal compliance, so that a misspelled name or typographical error voids the exporter's/beneficiary's/seller's demand for payment. بعض المحاكم يصرون على الالتزام الحرفي ، حتى ان اسم خطأ إملائي أو خطأ مطبعي فراغات المصدر ل / المستفيد / البائع الطلب على الدفع. Other courts require payment upon substantial compliance with documentary requirements. محاكم أخرى تتطلب الدفع عند امتثال كبير مع المتطلبات المستندية. The bank may insist upon strict compliance with the requirements of the L/C. البنك قد يصر على الامتثال الصارم لمتطلبات الاعتماد. In the absence of conformity with the L/C, the Seller cannot force payment and the bank pays at its own risk. Sellers should be careful and remember that the bank may insist upon strict compliance with all documentary requirements in the LC. في غياب جريا على الاعتماد المستندي ، لا يمكن للبائع لا قوة دفع ويدفع البنك على مسؤوليتها الخاصة. مبيعا يجب أن نكون حذرين ونتذكر أن البنك قد يصر على الامتثال الصارم لجميع المستندات المطلوبة في المجلس التشريعي. If the documents do not conform, the bank should give the seller prompt, detailed notice, specifying all discrepancies and shortfalls. إذا كانت الوثائق لا تتفق ، وينبغي أن البنك يعطي البائع الأوامر ، اشعار مفصل ، ويحدد جميع التناقضات وأوجه النقص.
2) The Independence Doctrine 2) إن عقيدة الاستقلال

Letters of credit deal in documents, not goods. خطابات الائتمان في معالجة الوثائق ، وليس السلع. L/Cs are purely documentary transactions, separate and independent from the underlying contract between the Buyer and the Seller. خطابات الاعتماد المستندية هي محض المعاملات ، منفصلة ومستقلة عن العقد الأساسي بين المشتري والبائع. The bank honoring the L/C is concerned only to see that the documents conform with the requirements in the L/C. تكريم بنك الاعتماد المستندي ليست معنية إلا أن نرى أن الوثائق التي تنسجم مع متطلبات في لتر / C. If the documents conform, the bank will pay, and obtain reimbursement from the Buyer/Applicant. إذا كانت المستندات مطابقة ، سيقوم البنك بدفع ، والحصول على السداد من المشتري / مقدم الطلب. The bank need not look past the documents to examine the underlying sale of merchandise or the product itself. البنك لا حاجة ننظر الى الماضي للنظر في الوثائق الأساسية لبيع البضائع أو المنتج نفسه. The letter of credit is independent from the underlying transaction and, except in rare cases of fraud or forgery, the issuing bank must honor conforming documents. Thus, Sellers are given protections that the issuing bank must honor its demand for payment (which complies with the terms of the L/C) regardless of whether the goods conform with the underlying sale contract. خطاب الاعتماد مستقلة عن المعاملة الأساسية و، إلا في حالات نادرة من حالات الغش أو التزوير ، والبنك المصدر لابد وأن تحترم الوثائق المستوفية للشروط ، وبالتالي مبيعا تعطى الحماية التي يجب على البنك المصدر بتعهداتها لدفع الطلب (والذي يتوافق مع شروط الاعتماد المستندي) بغض النظر عن ما إذا كانت البضاعة مطابقة للبيع العقد الأساسي.


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قديم 08-10-2010, 05:17 PM   رقم المشاركة : [3]
مشرف قاعدة المعلومات المصرية
الصورة الرمزية محرر الموقع
 

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افتراضي رد: الاعتمادات المستندية ومصطلحات الشحن والتخليص الجمركي

معظم الأسباب الشائعة لماذا يفشل في خطابات الاعتماد الضامنة
1) Time Lines:
1) الوقت لاينز :

The letter of credit should have an expiration date that gives sufficient time to the seller to get all the tasks specified and the documents required in the LC. خطاب الاعتماد ينبغي أن يكون تاريخ انتهاء الصلاحية الذي يعطي وقتا كافيا لالبائع للحصول على كل المهام المحددة والمستندات المطلوبة في المجلس التشريعي. If the letter of credit expires, the seller is left with no protection. إذا كان خطاب الاعتماد تنتهي ، والبائع هو ترك من دون حماية. Most LC s fail because Sellers/Exporters/Beneficiaries were unable to perform within the specified time frame in the LC. معظم ش ق تفشل بسبب مبيعا / المصدرون / المستفيدون لم يتمكنوا من أداء ضمن الإطار الزمني المحدد في قانون العمل. Three dates are of importance in an LC: ثلاثة تواريخ لهما أهمية في قانون العمل :
a) The date by when shipment should have occurred. أ) التاريخ الذي ينبغي أن الشحنة عندما وقعت. The date on the Bill of Lading.
التاريخ على بوليصة الشحن.
b) The date by when documents have to be presented to the Bank
ب) تاريخ وثائق من قبل عندما يتعين تقديمها للبنك
c) The expiry date of the LC itself. ج) تاريخ انتهاء مدة المجلس التشريعي نفسه.
A good source to give you an idea of the timelines would be your freight forwarding agent. وقال مصدر جيد لإعطائك فكرة عن جدول زمني من شأنه أن يكون لديك وكيل الشحن. As a seller check with your freight forwarding agent to see if you would be in a position to comply. كما تحقق مع البائع بك كيل شحن لمعرفة ما اذا كان سيكون في وضع يمكنه من الامتثال.
2) Discrepancy within the Letter of Credit: 2) الفروق داخل خطاب الاعتماد :
Letters of credit could also have discrepancies. خطابات الائتمان قد يكون لها أيضا تناقضات. Even a discrepancy as small as a missing period or comma can render the document invalid. حتى وجود تباين صغيرة مثل فترة فاصلة مفقودة أو يمكن تقديم وثيقة غير صالحة. Thus, the earlier in the process the letter of credit is examined, the more time is available to identify and fix the problem. وهكذا ، في وقت سابق في عملية للخطاب الاعتماد غير المدروسة ، ويتوفر المزيد من الوقت لتحديد وإصلاح المشكلة. This is another common reason why LCs fail. هذا هو سبب آخر لماذا عام LCs تفشل.
3) Compliance with the Documents and Conditions within the Letter of Credit. 3) والامتثال والمستندات والشروط ضمن خطاب الاعتماد.
Letters of credit are about documents and not facts; the inability to produce a given document at the right time will nullify the letter of credit. خطابات الاعتماد عن وثائق وليس على حقائق ، وعدم القدرة على إصدار وثيقة معينة في الوقت المناسب سوف تلغي خطاب الاعتماد. As a Seller/Exporter/Beneficiary you should try and run the compliance issues with the various department or individuals involved within your organization to see if compliance would be a problem. كما بائع / مصدر / المستفيد عليك أن تحاول وتشغيل قضايا الامتثال لإدارة مختلف أو الأفراد المعنيين داخل مؤسستك الامتثال لمعرفة ما اذا ستكون هناك مشكلة. And if so, have the LC amended before shipping the goods. وإذا كان الأمر كذلك ، يكون من قانون العمل المعدلة قبل شحن البضائع.
Learning the Terminology of Exporting
تعلم المصطلحات من المصدرة
INCOTERMS (TRANSPORTATION) الإنكوترمز (النقل)
Shipping terms set the parameters for international shipments, specify points of origin and destination, outline conditions under which title is transferred from seller to buyer, and determine which party is responsible for shipping costs. الشحن حيث وضعت معايير لالشحنات الدولية ، وتحديد نقاط المنشأ والمقصد ، في ظل ظروف المخطط الذي يتم نقل الملكية من البائع الى المشتري ، وتحديد الطرف الذي هو المسؤول عن تكاليف الشحن. They also indicate which party assumes the cost if merchandise is lost or damaged during transit. كما أنها تشير إلى الطرف الذي يتحمل تكلفة البضائع هو إذا فقدت أو أتلفت أثناء العبور. To provide a common terminology for international shipping, INCOTERMS (International Commercial Terms) have been developed under the auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce. See their website at [فقط الأعضاء المسجلين والمفعلين يمكنهم رؤية الوصلات . إضغط هنا للتسجيل] for the latest Incoterms2000. لتوفير مصطلحات مشتركة للنقل البحري الدولي ، الإنكوترمز (شروط التجاري الدولي) وقد وضعت تحت رعاية غرفة التجارة الدولية. انظر موقعه على الانترنت في [فقط الأعضاء المسجلين والمفعلين يمكنهم رؤية الوصلات . إضغط هنا للتسجيل] لIncoterms2000 آخر.



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قديم 08-10-2010, 05:20 PM   رقم المشاركة : [4]
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افتراضي رد: الاعتمادات المستندية ومصطلحات الشحن والتخليص الجمركي

Understanding and Using Letters of Credit, Part I

Letters of credit accomplish their purpose by substituting the credit of the bank for that of the customer, for the purpose of facilitating trade. There are basically two types: commercial and standby. The commercial letter of credit is the primary payment mechanism for a transaction, whereas the standby letter of credit is a secondary payment mechanism.

Commercial Letter of Credit
Commercial letters of credit have been used for centuries to facilitate payment in international trade. Their use will continue to increase as the global economy evolves.

Letters of credit used in international transactions are governed by the International Chamber of Commerce Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits. The general provisions and definitions of the International Chamber of Commerce are binding on all parties. Domestic collections in the United States are governed by the Uniform Commercial Code.

A commercial letter of credit is a contractual agreement between a bank, known as the issuing bank, on behalf of one of its customers, authorizing another bank, known as the advising or confirming bank, to make payment to the beneficiary. The issuing bank, on the request of its customer, opens the letter of credit. The issuing bank makes a commitment to honor drawings made under the credit. The beneficiary is normally the provider of goods and/or services. Essentially, the issuing bank replaces the bank's customer as the payee.

Elements of a Letter of Credit
  • A payment undertaking given by a bank (issuing bank)
  • On behalf of a buyer (applicant)
  • To pay a seller (beneficiary) for a given amount of money
  • On presentation of specified documents representing the supply of goods
  • Within specified time limits
  • Documents must conform to terms and conditions set out in the letter of credit
  • Documents to be presented at a specified place
Beneficiary
The beneficiary is entitled to payment as long as he can provide the documentary evidence required by the letter of credit. The letter of credit is a distinct and separate transaction from the contract on which it is based. All parties deal in documents and not in goods. The issuing bank is not liable for performance of the underlying contract between the customer and beneficiary. The issuing bank's obligation to the buyer, is to examine all documents to insure that they meet all the terms and conditions of the credit. Upon requesting demand for payment the beneficiary warrants that all conditions of the agreement have been complied with. If the beneficiary (seller) conforms to the letter of credit, the seller must be paid by the bank.

Issuing Bank
The issuing bank's liability to pay and to be reimbursed from its customer becomes absolute upon the completion of the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. Under the provisions of the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, the bank is given a reasonable amount of time after receipt of the documents to honor the draft.

The issuing banks' role is to provide a guarantee to the seller that if compliant documents are presented, the bank will pay the seller the amount due and to examine the documents, and only pay if these documents comply with the terms and conditions set out in the letter of credit.

Typically the documents requested will include a commercial invoice, a transport document such as a bill of lading or airway bill and an insurance document; but there are many others. Letters of credit deal in documents, not goods.

Advising Bank
An advising bank, usually a foreign correspondent bank of the issuing bank will advise the beneficiary. Generally, the beneficiary would want to use a local bank to insure that the letter of credit is valid. In addition, the advising bank would be responsible for sending the documents to the issuing bank. The advising bank has no other obligation under the letter of credit. If the issuing bank does not pay the beneficiary, the advising bank is not obligated to pay.

Confirming Bank
The correspondent bank may confirm the letter of credit for the beneficiary. At the request of the issuing bank, the correspondent obligates itself to insure payment under the letter of credit. The confirming bank would not confirm the credit until it evaluated the country and bank where the letter of credit originates. The confirming bank is usually the advising bank.

Letter of Credit Characteristics

Negotiability
Letters of credit are usually negotiable. The issuing bank is obligated to pay not only the beneficiary, but also any bank nominated by the beneficiary. Negotiable instruments are passed freely from one party to another almost in the same way as money. To be negotiable, the letter of credit must include an unconditional promise to pay, on demand or at a definite time. The nominated bank becomes a holder in due course. As a holder in due course, the holder takes the letter of credit for value, in good faith, without notice of any claims against it. A holder in due course is treated favorably under the UCC.

The transaction is considered a straight negotiation if the issuing bank's payment obligation extends only to the beneficiary of the credit. If a letter of credit is a straight negotiation it is referenced on its face by "we engage with you" or "available with ourselves". Under these conditions the promise does not pass to a purchaser of the draft as a holder in due course.

Revocability
Letters of credit may be either revocable or irrevocable. A revocable letter of credit may be revoked or modified for any reason, at any time by the issuing bank without notification. A revocable letter of credit cannot be confirmed. If a correspondent bank is engaged in a transaction that involves a revocable letter of credit, it serves as the advising bank.

Once the documents have been presented and meet the terms and conditions in the letter of credit, and the draft is honored, the letter of credit cannot be revoked. The revocable letter of credit is not a commonly used instrument. It is generally used to provide guidelines for shipment. If a letter of credit is revocable it would be referenced on its face.

The irrevocable letter of credit may not be revoked or amended without the agreement of the issuing bank, the confirming bank, and the beneficiary. An irrevocable letter of credit from the issuing bank insures the beneficiary that if the required documents are presented and the terms and conditions are complied with, payment will be made. If a letter of credit is irrevocable it is referenced on its face.

Transfer and Assignment
The beneficiary has the right to transfer or assign the right to draw, under a credit only when the credit states that it is transferable or assignable. Credits governed by the Uniform Commercial Code (Domestic) maybe transferred an unlimited number of times. Under the Uniform Customs Practice for Documentary Credits (International) the credit may be transferred only once. However, even if the credit specifies that it is nontransferable or nonassignable, the beneficiary may transfer their rights prior to performance of conditions of the credit.

Sight and Time Drafts
All letters of credit require the beneficiary to present a draft and specified documents in order to receive payment. A draft is a written order by which the party creating it, orders another party to pay money to a third party. A draft is also called a bill of exchange.

There are two types of drafts: sight and time. A sight draft is payable as soon as it is presented for payment. The bank is allowed a reasonable time to review the documents before making payment.

A time draft is not payable until the lapse of a particular time period stated on the draft. The bank is required to accept the draft as soon as the documents comply with credit terms. The issuing bank has a reasonable time to examine those documents. The issuing bank is obligated to accept drafts and pay them at maturity.

Standby Letter of Credit
The standby letter of credit serves a different function than the commercial letter of credit. The commercial letter of credit is the primary payment mechanism for a transaction. The standby letter of credit serves as a secondary payment mechanism. A bank will issue a standby letter of credit on behalf of a customer to provide assurances of his ability to perform under the terms of a contract between the beneficiary. The parties involved with the transaction do not expect that the letter of credit will ever be drawn upon.

The standby letter of credit assures the beneficiary of the performance of the customer's obligation. The beneficiary is able to draw under the credit by presenting a draft, copies of invoices, with evidence that the customer has not performed its obligation. The bank is obligated to make payment if the documents presented comply with the terms of the letter of credit.

Standby letters of credit are issued by banks to stand behind monetary obligations, to insure the refund of advance payment, to support performance and bid obligations, and to insure the completion of a sales contract. The credit has an expiration date.

The standby letter of credit is often used to guarantee performance or to strengthen the credit worthiness of a customer. In the above example, the letter of credit is issued by the bank and held by the supplier. The customer is provided open account terms. If payments are made in accordance with the suppliers' terms, the letter of credit would not be drawn on. The seller pursues the customer for payment directly. If the customer is unable to pay, the seller presents a draft and copies of invoices to the bank for payment.

The domestic standby letter of credit is governed by the Uniform Commercial Code. Under these provisions, the bank is given until the close of the third banking day after receipt of the documents to honor the draft.

Procedures for Using the Tool
The following procedures include a flow of events that follow the decision to use a Commercial Letter of Credit. Procedures required to execute a Standby Letter of Credit are less rigorous. The standby credit is a domestic transaction. It does not require a correspondent bank (advising or confirming). The documentation requirements are also less tedious.

Step-by-step process:
  • Buyer and seller agree to conduct business. The seller wants a letter of credit to guarantee payment.
  • Buyer applies to his bank for a letter of credit in favor of the seller.
  • Buyer's bank approves the credit risk of the buyer, issues and forwards the credit to its correspondent bank (advising or confirming). The correspondent bank is usually located in the same geographical location as the seller (beneficiary).
  • Advising bank will authenticate the credit and forward the original credit to the seller (beneficiary).
  • Seller (beneficiary) ships the goods, then verifies and develops the documentary requirements to support the letter of credit. Documentary requirements may vary greatly depending on the perceived risk involved in dealing with a particular company.
  • Seller presents the required documents to the advising or confirming bank to be processed for payment.
  • Advising or confirming bank examines the documents for compliance with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit.
  • If the documents are correct, the advising or confirming bank will claim the funds by:
    • Debiting the account of the issuing bank.
    • Waiting until the issuing bank remits, after receiving the documents.
    • Reimburse on another bank as required in the credit.
  • Advising or confirming bank will forward the documents to the issuing bank.
  • Issuing bank will examine the documents for compliance. If they are in order, the issuing bank will debit the buyer's account.
  • Issuing bank then forwards the documents to the buyer.
Standard Forms of Documentation
When making payment for product on behalf of its customer, the issuing bank must verify that all documents and drafts conform precisely to the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. Although the credit can require an array of documents, the most common documents that must accompany the draft include:

Commercial Invoice
The billing for the goods and services. It includes a description of merchandise, price, FOB origin, and name and address of buyer and seller. The buyer and seller information must correspond exactly to the description in the letter of credit. Unless the letter of credit specifically states otherwise, a generic description of the merchandise is usually acceptable in the other accompanying documents.

Bill of Lading
A document evidencing the receipt of goods for shipment and issued by a freight carrier engaged in the business of forwarding or transporting goods. The documents evidence control of goods. They also serve as a receipt for the merchandise shipped and as evidence of the carrier's obligation to transport the goods to their proper destination.

Warranty of Title
A warranty given by a seller to a buyer of goods that states that the title being conveyed is good and that the transfer is rightful. This is a method of certifying clear title to product transfer. It is generally issued to the purchaser and issuing bank expressing an agreement to indemnify and hold both parties harmless.

Letter of Indemnity
Specifically indemnifies the purchaser against a certain stated circumstance. Indemnification is generally used to guaranty that shipping documents will be provided in good order when available.

Common Defects in Documentation
About half of all drawings presented contain discrepancies. A discrepancy is an irregularity in the documents that causes them to be in non-compliance to the letter of credit. Requirements set forth in the letter of credit cannot be waived or altered by the issuing bank without the express consent of the customer. The beneficiary should prepare and examine all documents carefully before presentation to the paying bank to avoid any delay in receipt of payment. Commonly found discrepancies between the letter of credit and supporting documents include:
  • Letter of Credit has expired prior to presentation of draft.
  • Bill of Lading evidences delivery prior to or after the date range stated in the credit.
  • Stale dated documents.
  • Changes included in the invoice not authorized in the credit.
  • Inconsistent description of goods.
  • Insurance document errors.
  • Invoice amount not equal to draft amount.
  • Ports of loading and destination not as specified in the credit.
  • Description of merchandise is not as stated in credit.
  • A document required by the credit is not presented.


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افتراضي رد: الاعتمادات المستندية ومصطلحات الشحن والتخليص الجمركي

Understanding and Using Letters of Credit, Part II

CRF thanks Ron Borcky for his development of this section

Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide a general understanding of letters of credit, their use and application. The topics covered are the following:
  • General background information;
  • Types of letters of credit;
  • Common problems with letters of credit;
  • Procedures for establishing letters of credit;
  • Amendments; and
  • General tips to both buyers and sellers.
In addition, attachments to this document detail a step-by-step letter of credit procedures.

Definition
Letters of credit are commonly used to reduce credit risk to sellers in both domestic and international sales arrangements. By having a bank issue a letter of credit, in essence, one is substituting the bank's credit worthiness for that of the customer.

Types
There are two basic forms of letters of credit: Standby and Documentary. Documentary letters of credit can be either Revocable or Irrevocable, although the first is extremely rare. Irrevocable letters of credit can be Confirmed or Not Confirmed. Each type of credit has advantages and disadvantages for the buyer and for the seller, which this information will review below. Charges for each type will also vary. However, the more the banks assume risk by guaranteeing payment, the more they will charge for providing the service.

Documentary Revocable Letter of Credit
Revocable credits may be modified or even canceled by the buyer without notice to the seller. Therefore, they are generally unacceptable to the seller.

Documentary Irrevocable Letter of Credit
This is the most common form of credit used in international trade. Irrevocable credits may not be modified or canceled by the buyer. The buyer's issuing bank must follow through with payment to the seller so long as the seller complies with the conditions listed in the letter of credit. Changes in the credit must be approved by both the buyer and the seller. If the documentary letter of credit does not mention whether it is revocable or irrevocable, it automatically defaults to irrevocable. See Credit Administration, Sample Procedure for Administration of a Documentary Irrevocable Letters of Credit for a systematic procedure for establishing an irrevocable letter of credit.

There are two forms of irrevocable credits:
Unconfirmed credit (the irrevocable credit not confirmed by the advising bank)
In an unconfirmed credit, the buyer's bank issuing the credit is the only party responsible for payment to the seller. The seller's advising bank pays only after receiving payment from the issuing bank. The seller's advising bank merely acts on behalf of the issuing bank and, therefore, incurs no risk.

Confirmed credit (the irrevocable confirmed credit)
In a confirmed credit, the advising bank adds its guarantee to pay the seller to that of the buyer's issuing bank. Once the advising bank reviews and confirms that all documentary requirements are met, it will pay the seller. The advising bank will then look to the issuing bank for payment. Confirmed Irrevocable letters of credit are used when trading in a high-risk area where war or social, political, or financial instability are real threats. Also common when the seller is unfamiliar with the bank issuing the letter of credit or when the seller needs to use the confirmed letter of credit to obtain financing its bank to fill the order. A confirmed credit is more expensive because the bank has added liability.

Standby Letter of Credit
This credit is a payment or performance guarantee used primarily in the United States. They are often called non-performing letters of credit because they are only used as a backup should the buyer fail to pay as agreed. Thus, a stand-by letter of credit allows the customer to establish a rapport with the seller by showing that it can fulfill its payment commitments. Standby letters of credit are used, for example, to guarantee repayment of loans, to ensure fulfillment of a contract, and to secure payment for goods delivered by third parties. The beneficiary to a standby letter of credit can cash it on demand. Stand-by letters of credit are generally less complicated and involve far less documentation requirements than irrevocable letters of credit. See Credit Administration, Sample Procedure for Administration of a Standby Letter of Credit for a systematic procedure for establishing a standby letter of credit.

Special Letters of Credit
The following is a brief description of some special letters of credit.

Back-to-Back Letter of Credit
This is a new letter of credit opened based on an already existing, nontransferable credit used as collateral. Traders often use back-to-back arrangements to pay the ultimate supplier. A trader receives a letter of credit from the buyer and then opens another letter of credit in favor of the supplier. The first letter of credit serves as collateral for the second credit.

Deferred Payment (Usance) Letter of Credit

In Deferred Payment Letters of Credit, the buyer accepts the documents related to the letter of credit and agrees to pay the issuing bank after a fixed period. This credit gives the buyer a grace period for payment.

Red Clause Letter of Credit
Red Clause Letters of Credit provide the seller with cash prior to shipment to finance production of the goods. The buyer's issuing bank may advance some or all of the funds. The buyer, in essence, extends financing to the seller and incurs the risk for all advanced credits.

Revolving Letter of Credit
With a Revolving Letter of Credit, the issuing bank restores the credit to its original amount once it has been used or drawn down. Usually, these arrangements limit the number of times the buyer may draw down its line over a predetermined period.

Transferable Letter of Credit
This type of credit allows the seller to transfer all or part of the proceeds of the original letter of credit to a second beneficiary, usually the ultimate supplier of the goods. The letter of credit must clearly state that it is transferable for its to be considered as such. This is a common financing tactic for middlemen and is common in East Asia.

Assignment of Proceeds
The beneficiary of a letter of credit may assign all or part of the proceeds under a credit to a third party (the assignee). However, unlike a transferred credit, the beneficiary maintains sole rights to the credit and is solely responsible for complying with its terms and conditions. For the assignee, an assignment only means that the paying bank, once it receives notice of the assignment, undertakes to follow the assignment instructions, if and when payment is made. The assignee is dependent upon the beneficiary for compliance, and thus this arrangement is riskier than a transferred credit. Before agreeing to an assignment of proceeds arrangement, the assignee should carefully review the original letter of credit.

Common Problems with Letters of Credit
Most problems result from the seller's inability to fulfill obligations stated in the letter of credit. The seller may find these terms difficult or impossible to fulfill and, either tries to fulfill them and fails, or asks the buyer to amend to the letter of credit. As most letters of credit are irrevocable, amendments may at times be difficult since both the buyer and the seller must agree.

Sellers may have one or more of the following problems:
  • The shipment schedule cannot be met;
  • The stipulations concerning freight costs are unacceptable;
  • The price becomes too low due to exchange rates fluctuations;
  • The quantity of product ordered is not the expected amount;
  • The description of product is either insufficient or too detailed; and,
  • The stipulated documents are difficult or impossible to obtain.
Even when sellers accept the terms of a letter of credit, problems often arise late in the process. When this occurs, the buyer's and seller's banks will try to negotiate any differences. In some cases, the seller can correct the documents and present them within the time specified in the letter of credit. If the documents cannot be corrected, the advising bank will ask the issuing bank to accept the documents despite the discrepancies found. It is important to note that, if the documents are not in accord with the specifications of the letter of credit, the buyer's issuing bank is no longer obligated to pay.

Basic Procedures for Establishing a Letter of Credit
The letter of credit process has been standardized by a set of rules published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). These rules are called the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP) and are contained in ICC Publication No. 500. The following is the basic set of steps used in a letter of credit transaction. Specific letter of credit transactions follow somewhat different procedures.

1. After the buyer and seller agree on the terms of a sale, the buyer arranges for his bank to open a letter of credit in favor of the seller. Note: The buyer will need to have a line of credit established at the bank or provide cash collateral for the amount of the letter of credit.

2. The buyer's issuing bank prepares the letter of credit, including all of the buyer's instructions to the seller concerning shipment and required documentation.

3. The buyer's bank sends the letter of credit to the seller's advising bank.

4. The seller's advising bank forwards the letter of credit to the seller.

5. The seller carefully reviews all conditions stipulated in the letter of credit. If the seller cannot comply with any of the provisions, it will ask the buyer to amend the letter of credit.

6. After final terms are agreed upon, the seller ships the goods to the appropriate port or location.

7. After shipping the goods, the seller obtains the required documents. Please note that the seller may have to obtain some documents prior to shipment.

8. The seller presents the documents to its advising bank along with a draft for payment.

9. The seller's advising bank reviews the documents. If they are in order, it will forward them to the buyer's issuing bank. If a confirmed letter of credit, the advising bank will pay the seller (cash or a bankers' acceptance).

10. Once the buyer's issuing bank receives and reviews the documents, it either (1) pays if there are no discrepancies; or (2) forwards the documents to the buyer if there are discrepancies for its review and approval.

Opening a Letter of Credit
Level of Detail

The wording in a letter of credit should be simple, but specific. The more detailed an L/C is, the more likely the seller will reject it as too difficult to fulfill. At the same time, the buyer will wish to define in detail what its is paying for.

Type of Credit
Letters of credit used in trade are usually either irrevocable unconfirmed credits or irrevocable confirmed credits. In choosing which type to open both the seller and the buyer should consider the generally accepted payment processes in each country, the value and demand for the goods, and the reputation of the buyer and seller.

Documents
In specifying required documents, it is very important to include those required for customs and those reflecting the agreement reached between the buyer and the seller. Required documents usually include the bill of lading, a commercial and/or consular invoice, the bill of exchange, the certificate of origin, and the insurance document. Other documents required may be an inspection certificate, copies of a cable sent to the buyer with shipping information, a confirmation from the shipping company of the state of its ship, and a confirmation from the forwarder that the goods are accompanied by a certificate of origin. Prices should be stated in the currency of the letter of credit and documents should in the same language as the letter of credit.

The Letter of Credit Application
The following information should be addressed when establishing a letter of credit.

1. Beneficiary
The seller should provide to the buyer its full corporate name and correct address. A simple mistake here may translate to inconsistent or improper documentation at the other end.

2. Amount
The seller should state the actual amount of the letter of credit. One can request a maximum amount when there is doubt as to the actual count or quantity of the goods. Another option is to use words like "approximate", "circa", or "about" to indicate an acceptable 10 % plus or minus from the stated amount. For consistency, if you use this wording you will need to use it also in connection with the quantity.

3. Validity
The seller will need time to ship and to prepare all the necessary documents. Therefore, the seller should ensure that the validity and period for document presentation after the shipment of the goods is long enough.

4. Seller's Bank
The seller should list its advising bank as well as a reimbursing bank if applicable. The reimbursing bank is the local bank appointed by the issuing bank as the disbursing bank.

5. Type of Payment Availability
The buyer and seller may agree to use sight drafts, time drafts, or some sort of deferred payment mechanism.

6. Desired Documents
The buyer specifies the necessary documents. Buyers can list, for example, a bill of lading, a commercial invoice, a certificate of origin, certificates of analysis, etc. The seller must agree to all documentary requirements or suggest an amendment to the letter of credit.

7. Notify Address
This is the address to notify upon the imminent arrival of goods at the port or airport of destination. A notification listing damaged goods is also sent to this address, if applicable.

8. Description of Goods
The seller should provide a short and precise description of the goods as well as the quantity involved. Note the comments in step #2 above concerning approximate amounts.

9. Confirmation Order
With international arrangements, the seller may wish to confirm the letter of credit with a bank in its country.

Amendment of a Letter of Credit
For the seller to change the terms noted on an irrevocable letter of credit, it must request an amendment from the buyer. The amendment process is as follows:
  1. The seller requests a modification or amendment of questionable terms in the letter of credit;
  2. If the buyer and issuing bank agree to the changes, the issuing bank will change the letter of credit;
  3. The buyer's issuing bank notifies the seller's advising bank of the amendment; and
  4. The seller's advising bank notifies the seller of the amendment. Tips for Buyers and Sellers
Seller
1. Before signing a sales contract, the seller should make inquiries about the buyer's creditworthiness and business practices. The seller's bank will generally assist in this investigation.

2. In many cases, the issuing bank will specify the advising and/or confirming bank. These designations are usually based on the issuing bank's established correspondent relationships. The seller should ensure that the advising/confirming bank is a financially sound institution.

3. The seller should confirm the good standing of the buyer's issuing bank if the letter of credit is unconfirmed.

4. For confirmed letters of credit, the seller's advising bank should be willing to confirm the letter of credit issued by the buyer's bank. If the advising bank refuses to do so, the seller should request another issuing bank as the current bank may be or is in the process of becoming insolvent.

5. The seller should carefully review the letter of credit to ensure its conditions can be met. All documents must conform to the terms of the letter of credit. The seller must comply with every detail of the letter of credit specifications; otherwise the security given by the credit is lost.

6. The seller should ensure that the letter of credit is irrevocable.

7. If amendments are necessary, the seller should contact the buyer immediately so that the buyer can instruct the issuing bank to make the necessary changes quickly. The seller should keep the letter of credit's expiration date in mind throughout the amendment process.

8. The seller should confirm with the insurance company that it can provide the coverage specified in the letter of credit and that insurance charges listed in the letter of credit are correct. Typical insurance coverage is for CIF (cost, insurance and freight) often the value of the goods plus about 10 percent.

9. The seller must ensure that the goods match the description in the letter of credit and the invoice description.

10. The seller should be familiar with foreign exchange limitations in the buyer's country that could hinder payment procedures.

Buyer
1. When choosing the type of letter of credit, the buyer should consider the standard payment methods in the seller's country.

2. The buyer should keep the details of the purchase short and concise.

3. The buyer should be prepared to amend or re-negotiate terms of the letter of credit with the seller. This is a common procedure in international trade. With irrevocable letters of credit, the most common type, all parties must agree to amend the document.

4. The buyer can reduce the foreign exchange risk by buying forward currency contracts.

5. The buyer should use a bank experienced in foreign trade as its issuing bank.

6. The validation time stated on the letter of credit should give the seller ample time to produce the goods or to pull them out of stock.

7. A letter of credit is not fail-safe. Banks are only responsible for the documents exchanged and not the goods shipped. Documents in conformity with the letter of credit specifications cannot be rejected on grounds that the goods were not delivered as specified in the contract. The goods shipped may not in fact be the goods ordered and paid for.

8. Purchase contracts and other agreements pertaining to the sale between the buyer and seller are not the concern of the issuing bank. Only the letter of credit terms are binding on the bank.

9. Documents specified in the letter of credit should include those the buyer requires for customs clearance. Copyright 1999 Credit Research Foundation
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قديم 08-10-2010, 05:28 PM   رقم المشاركة : [6]
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افتراضي رد: الاعتمادات المستندية ومصطلحات الشحن والتخليص الجمركي

ومرفق كتب لشرح الاعتمادات المستندية


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قديم 14-03-2012, 01:27 PM   رقم المشاركة : [7]
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ابو بطه is on a distinguished road
افتراضي رد: الاعتمادات المستندية ومصطلحات الشحن والتخليص الجمركي

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ابو بطه is on a distinguished road
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